Part 1 : Neurons

I am currently reviewing my base of knowledge. Although, I found such content to be tedious and hard-understanding, it has come to my senses that such knowledge is not quite difficult to grasp and quite interesting in fact.

The tropical cone snail is known for both its colourfully vibrant shell and dangerous venom. This carnivore (marine snail) hunts, kills and dines on fish through the injection of venom with a hollow, harpoon-like part of its mouth. This results in immediate paralysis. The injection is so potent that with just a single injection, unaware scuba divers have been known to die due to its potent venom. What makes this cone snail venom so fast acting and lethal?

The answer to this question is a mixture of molecules that disable neurons, which are nerve cells that transfer information within the body. Since the venom virtually disrupts neuronal control of vital functions, such as locomotion and respiration, an animal that’s attacked y the cone snail can neither defend itself nor escape.

Communication by neurons mainly consist of two distinct types of signals: long-distance electrical signals and short-distance chemical signals. The specialized structure of neurons allows them to use pulses of electrical current to receive, transmit, and regulate the flow of information over long distances within the body. In transferring information from one cell to another, neurons often rely on chemical signals that act over very short distances. The venom’s potency is to due to the interference with which it causes with respect to both electrical and chemical signaling by neurons.

Neurons convey many different types of information such as the transmission of sensory information, which include heart rate, coordinate hand and eye movement, memories, dreams and much more. All this information is transmitted within neurons as an electrical current, consisting of the movement of ions. The connections made by a neuron specify what information is transmitted. Interpreting signals in the nervous system therefore involves sorting a complex set of neuronal paths and connections. In more complex animals, this higher-order processing is carried out largely in groups of neurons organized into a brain or into simpler clusters ganglia.

Before delving into the activity of an individual neuron, let’s take an overall look at how neurons function in the flow of information throughout the animal body. We’ll use as our example the squid, an organism that has some extraordinarily large nerve cells that are suited for physiological studies.

The squid uses its brain to process information captured by its image-forming eyes while the squid surveys it environment. When the squid spots prey, signals travelling from its brain to neurons in its mantle causes muscle contractions that propel the squid forward.

The squid’s hunting activity illustrates three important stages in its information processing: sensory input, integration, and motor output. In all but the simplest animals, specialized populations of neurons handle each stage. Sensory neurons transmit information from eyes and other sensors that detect external stimuli (light, sound, touch, heat, smell, and taste) or internal conditions (such as blood pressure, blood carbon dioxide and muscle tension). This information is sent to processing centers in the brain or in ganglia. Neurons in the brain or ganglia integrate (analyze and interpret) the sensory input, taking into account the immediate context and the animal’s past experience.

The vast majority of neurons in the brain are interneurons, which make only local connections. Motor output relies on neurons that exit the processing centers in bundles called nerves and generate output by triggering muscle or gland activity. For example, motor neurons transmit signals to muscle cells, causing them to contract.

In many animals, the neurons that carry out integration are organized in a central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and a longitudinal nerve cord. The neurons that carry information into and out of the CNS constitute the peripheral nervous system (PNS). 

A neuron’s ability to receive and transmit information is based on a highly specialized cellular organization. Most of a neuron’s organelles, including its nucleus, are located in the cell body. A typical neuron has numerous dendrites, highly branches extensions that receive signals from other neurons. A neuron also has a single axon, an extension that transmits signals to other cells. Axons are often much longer than dendrites, and some, such as those that reach from the spinal cord of a giraffe to the muscle cells in its feet, are over a meter long. The cone-shaped region of an axon where it joins the cell body is called the axon hillock; as we will see, this is typically the region where the signals that travel down the axon are generated. Near its other end, the axon usually divides into several branches.

Each branched end of an axon transmits information to another cell at a junction called a synapse. The part of each axon branch that forms this specialized junction is a synaptic terminal. At most synapses, chemical messengers called neurotransmitters pass information from the transmitting neuron to the receiving cell. In describing a synapse, we refer to the transmitting neuron as the presynaptic cell and the neuron, muscle, gland cell that receives he signal as the postsynaptic cell. Depending ont he number of synapses, a neuron has with other cells, its shape can vary from simple to quite complex. Some interneurons have highly branches dendrites that take part in about 100,000 synapses in contrast, neurons with simpler dendrites have far fewer synapses.

To function normally, the neurons of vertebrates and most invertebrates require supporting cells called glial cells, or glia . Depending on the type, glia may nourish neurons, insulate the axons of neurons , or regulate the extracellular fluid surrounding neurons. Overall, glia outnumber neurons in the mammalian brain 10- to 50-fold.

All cells have a membrane potential, a voltage (difference in electrical charge) across their plasma membrane. In neurons, inputs from other neurons or specific stimuli cause changes in this membrane potential that act as signals, transmitting and processing information. Rapid changes in membrane potential are what enable us to see a flower, read a book or climb a tree. Thus, to understand how neurons function, we first need to examine how membrane potentials are formed, maintained and altered.

The membrane potential of a resting neuron- one that is not sending signals is its resting potential and is typically -60 and -80mV (millivolts). The minus sign indicates that the inside of a neuron at rest is negative relative to the outside.

Potassium ions (K+) and sodium ions (Na+) play critical roles in the formation of the resting potential. For each, there is a concentration gradient across the plasma membrane of a neuron. In the case of mammalian neurons, the concentrations of k+ is 140 millimolar (mM) inside the cell, but only 5mM outside. The Na+ concentration gradient is nearly the opposite: 150nM outside and only 15mM inside. These Na+ and K+ gradients are determined by sodium-potassium pumps in the plasma membrane. These ion pumps use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to actively transport Na+ out of the cell and k+ into the cell.

The concentration gradients of K+ and Na+ across the plasma membrane represent a chemical form of potential energy. Converting this chemical potential to an electrical potential involves ion channels, pores formed by clusers of specialized proteins that span the membrane. Ion channels allow ions to diffuse back and forth across the membrane. As ions diffuse through channels, they carry with them units of electrical charge. Any resulting net movement of positive or negative charge will generate a voltage, or potential, across the membrane.

The ion channels that establish the membrane potential have selective permeability, meaning that they only allow certain ions to pass. For example, a potassium channel allows K+ to diffuse freely across the membrane, but not other ions such as Na+. A resting neuron has many open potassium channels but very few open sodium channels.

The diffusion of potassium through open potassium channels is critical for the formation of the resting potential. In the resting mammalian neuron, these channels allow K+ to pass in either direction across the membrane. Because the higher concentration of k+ is much higehr inside the cell, the chemical concentration favors a net outflow k+. However since potassium channels allow only K+ to pass, Cl- and other anions inside the cell cannot accompany the k+ across the membrane. As a result, the outflow of K+ leads to an excess of negative charge inside the cell. This buildup of negative charge within the neuron is the source of the membrane potential.

What prevents the buildup of negative from increasing indefinitely? The answer lies in the electrical potential itself. The excess negative cells inside the cell exert an attractive force that opposes the flow of additional positively charged potassium ions out of the cell. The separation of charge (voltage) thus results in an electrical gradient that counterbalances the chemical concentration gradient of K+.

The net flow of K+ out of a neuron proceeds until the chemical and electrical forces are in balance. How well do just these two forces account for the resting potential in a mammalian neuron? To answer this question, let’s consider a simple model consisting of two chambers separated by an artifical membrane. To begin, imagine taht the membrane contain many open ion channels, all of which allow only K+ to diffuse across. To produce a concentration gradient for k+ like that of a mammalian neuron, we place a solution of 140mM potassium chloride in the inner chamber and 5mM KCl in the outer chamber. The potassium ions will diffuse down their concentration gradient into the outer chamber. But because the chloride ions lack a mean of crossing the membrane, there will be an excess of negative charge in the inner chamber.

When out model neuron reaches equilibrium, the electrical gradient will exactly balance the chemical gradient, such that no further net diffusion of K+ occurs across the membrane. The magnitude of the membrane voltage at equilibrium for a particular ion is called that ion’s equilibrium potential (Eion). For a membrane permeable toa  single type of ion, Eion can be calculated using a formula called the Nernst equation. At human body temperature (37 celsius) and for an ion witha  net charge of 1+, such as K+ or Na+, the Nernst equation is

Eion = 62mV(log[Ion]outside/[Ion]inside)

Plugging the K+ concentrations into the Nernst equation reveals that the equilibrium potential for K+ (Ek) is -90mV. The minus sign indicates that k+ is at equilibrium when the inside of the membrane is 90mV more negative than the outside. Although the equilibrium potential for k+ is -90mV, the resting potential of a mammalian neuron is somewhat less negative. This difference reflects the small but steady movement of Na+ across the few open sodium channels in a resting neuron. Because the concentration gradient of Na+ has a direction opposite to that of K+, Na+ diffuses into the cell and thus makes the inside of the cell less negative. If we model a membrane in which the only open channels are selectively permeable to Na+, we find that a tenfold higher concentration of Na+ in the outer chamber results in an equilibrium potential (ENa) of +62mV. The resting potential of an actual neuron is -60 to 80mV. The resting potential is much closer to Ek than to Ena in a neuron because there are many open potassium channels but only a small number of open sodium channels.

Because neither K+ nor Na+ is at equilibrium in a resting neuron, each ion has a net flow (a current) across the membrane. The resting potential remains steady, which means that the K+ and Na+ currents are equal and opposite. Ion concentrations on either side of the membrane also remain steady because the charge separation needed to generate the resting potential is extremely small (about 10^-12mole/cm^2 of membrane). This represents the movement of far fewer ions than would be required to alter the chemical concentration gradent.

Under conditions that allow Na+ to cross the membrane more readily the membrane potential will move towards ENa and away from EK.

We saw in the previous section that the resting potential results form the fact the plasma membrane of a resting neuron contains man open potassium channels but only a few open sodium channels. However, when neurons are active, membrane permeability and membrane potential change. The changes occur because neurons contain gated ion channels, ion channels that open or close in response to stimuli. This gating of ion channels forms the basis of nearly all electrical signaling in the nervous system. The opening or closing of an ion channel alters the membrane’s permeability to particular ions, which in turns alters the membrane potential. How have scientists studied these changes? The technique of intracellular recording provides a readout of the state of a single neuron in real time.

To begin exploring gated channels, let’s consider what happens when gated potassium channels that are closed in a resting neuron open. Opening more potassium channels increases the membrane’s permeability to K+, increasing the net diffusion of k+ out of the neurons. In other words, the inside of the membrane becomes more negative. As the membrane potential approaches Ek (-90mV at 37 celsius), the separation of charge or polarity increases. Thus the increase int he magnitude of the membrane potential is called a hyperpolarization. In general hyperpolarization results from any stimulus that increases either the outflow of positive ions or the inflow of negative ions.

Although opening potassium channels causes hyperpolarization, opening some other types of ion channels has an opposite effect, making the inside of the membrane less negative. This reduction in the magnitude of the membrane potential is called a depolarization. Depolarization in neurons often involves gated sodium channels. If the gated sodium channels open,the membrane’s permeability of Na+ increases, causing a depolarization as the membrane potential shifts towards ENa (+62mV at 37 celsius).

The types of hyperpolarization and depolarization we have considered so far are graded potentials because the magnitude of the change in membrane potential varies with the strength of the stimulus.

A larger stimulus causes a greater change in permeability (gated ion channels FTW!) and thus a greater change in the membrane potential. Graded potentials are not the actual nerve signals that travel along axons, but they have a major effect on the generation of nerve signals.

Many of the gated ion channels in neurons are voltage-gated ion channels; that is, they open or close in response to a change in the membrane potential. If a depolarization opens voltage-gated sodium channels, the resulting flow of Na+ into the neuron results in further depolarization. Because the sodium channels are voltage gated, an increased depolarization in turn causes more sodium channels to open, leading to an even greater flow of current. The result is a very rapid opening of all the voltage-gated sodium channels. Such a series of events triggers a massive change in membrane voltage called an action potential.

Action potentials are the nerve impulses, or signals, that carry information along an axon. Before we can discuss how these signals move, or propagate, along an axon, we must first understand more about the changes in membrane voltage that accompany an action potential.

Action potentials occur whenever a depolarization increases the membrane voltage to a particular value, called the threshold. For mammalian neurons, the threshold is a membrane of about -55mV. Once initiated, the action potential has a magnitude that is independent of the strength of the triggering stimulus. Because action potentials occur fully or not at all, they represent an all-or-none response to stimuli. This all-or-none property reflects the fact that depolarization opens voltage-gated sodium channels, and the opening of sodium channel causes further depolarization. This positive-feedback loop of depolarization and channel opening triggers an action potential  whenever the membrane potential reaches the threshold.

In most neurons, an action potential lasts only 1-2 milliseconds. Because action potentials are so brief, a neuron can produce hundreds of them per second. Furthermore the frequency with which a neuron generates action potentials can vary in response to input. Such differences in action potential frequency convey information about signal strength. In hearing, for example, louder sounds are reflected by more frequent action potentials in neurons connecting the ear to the brain.

Asian Parenting

I think this quote summarizes my opinion well of Asian Parenting, although I could never be quite this articulate :

I spent time in Korea. The common thread, from Japan to Vietnam is Confucianism. Confucius was a scholar-bureaucrat (mandarin) who lost his job due to political reasons, so he opened a school to train scholar-bureaucrats. An outsider looking in, he could only manifest his philosophy as learning, instead of practice. There’s a lot of good and bad things to be said about his system, and it all depends upon your point of view: but it was designed to create a civilized society in a pre-modern context. In other words, during the agricultural age.

In addition, Confucianism emphasizes conformity: to keep society stable, to ensure that the lessors due as their betters prescribe. The Japanese are credited with the saying “the nail that sticks up will be hammered down.” But the now famous director, Taiwanese born Ang Lang’s movies, including the Amazing Hulk, Broke Back Moutain, Lust, Caution and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon all involve themes that include a subject who’s inner self is different than the outer life he leads.

As a scholar and a philosopher, not only did Confucious compose a pragmatic system for agricultural (especially rice based) societies, but like another philosopher, Plato, he felt that society should be run by scholars/philosophers based upon merit. Even modern East Asian societies today are thus driven by an exam system. In Korea, on the day that exams are given, businesses alter their work schedules, planes don’t fly over head, all to make sure that students don’t have any problem getting to their exams and aren’t distracted while taking them.

Another aspect about East Asians is that guilt plays a much lower profile, if any, in their make up. Shame however is paramount. The difference between the two? If I do something bad and no one knows about it, I feel guilt, if someone else knows, I feel shame. So if either no one knows I do something wrong, or it is socially acceptable, then no guilt. Additionally, Asians think almost dynastically about family life. When two people come together, its also two families coming together. Often there isn’t much choice. As a result, though it’s often unsaid, there’s a lot of prostitution and infidelity going on but never apparent in many East Asian families. There’s no shame if you don’t get caught, and because of the dynastic concept of the family, a little trist might seem like a trifle in the scheme of things – though many spouses suffer as a result of coldness from their spouse.

In essence, then, for East Asians, your self worth and your family worth, is strictly a function of academic attainment as seen by others and that attainment is mostly exam driven. Academic attainment and conformity have strange affects. I know several Korean doctors who actually would have preferred to have been engineers, but they did too well on their exams and their families wouldn’t let them pursue what was considered a lessor path.

The emphasis on conformity makes it hard to think outside the box. Meaning if you are from inside the system, it’s hard to think outside of it.

This out look is all Amy Chua knows. She doesn’t know how to be another kind of parent. Technically, her parents weren’t Chinese immigrants, they came from the Philippines. But ethnic Chinese in South East Asia have been a market dominant group – and they’ve done so largely by maintaining their distinctive Chinese identification and culture in a foreign land (their market dominance may have something to do with the fact that Chinese came from a land that has a winter [barren growing season] while most of South East Asia has four growing seasons [and in some cases, harvesting is nothing more than stepping out of the house and eating the fruit falling from the trees]- so the concept of stored capital and the virtues of hard work and delayed gratification resonates less with Malays, Indonesians and Filipinos than it did with the thrifty Chinese who settled amongst them). Market dominance by a distinct minority gives that minority great incentive to maintain their cultural distinctiveness – so the idea of pounding a distinct culture into ones offspring, to maintain their market dominance and distinctive edge, is reinforced and enhanced over the generations as a survival strategy. Indeed, the Chinese in these areas exercise cultural chauvinism over their surrounding culture: one can imagine how this chauvinism manifest itself in their child rearing in so many ways that reflect in Chua’s techniques. All of this suggest that most Chinese that immigrate to America are more likely to assimilate or blend with America’s culture than Chua’s family coming from the Philippines with the idea of being distinctly Chinese in a non-Chinese environment. So as a Filipino-Chinese-American, she’s claiming Chinese cultural heritage, while many Chinese Americans look at her methods and think otherwise.

So Chua is distinctively East Asian and Chinese, but it’s with and asterix and it’s with an edge. Pounding the former culture into the offspring in a foreign context was the survival tactic of preceding generations in her back ground. She can’t be blamed for this, this Chinese culture, on steroids, and it is how she and her more immediate ancestors were raised. It is all she knows – she doesn’t know how to be another kind of parent. Furthermore, she’s succeeded to the pinnacle of the East Asian world: teaching at an Ivy League University. She’s enjoyed immense prestige (an also jealousy, no doubt) in East Asian communities that we cannot begin to fathom. But, there is the issue of her children. If she fails to get them to the same level she’ll be on the receiving end of shame: and there, like here, the higher you climb the farther you fall – and many of those very jealous of her success, she may have sensed, are just waiting for her to fail. No doubt she loves her children, but her own self worth is tied up in seeing that they succeed on a scale similar to her own. This mixture I think is what drives her to parenting by hammer and tongs.

While I taught at a University in Korea, I once asked my students to list their three biggest fears, and more than a few said it was their mothers.

I’m not totally displaced from what they were talking about. In high school my mother squeezed me to excel. I made it onto an advanced mathematics program at a private school which tried to get us to gain 6 hours of college credit calculus before graduation – but in trying to cram 5 or 6 years of math into four, things were skipped or not taught enough. The year before we were supposed to take calculus, 20 of us were put in a math class with seniors and an instructor who wasn’t down with the program and wouldn’t bend his curriculum to help us along. The first quarter, the 17 of the top people in my class were all flunking the math class. My mother figured she could just squeeze me into conforming and performing successfully. Try as I might, I couldn’t make the leap because I hadn’t had enough trigonometry and I had no idea what I was missing. Without the right foundation, I was disoriented and completely lost. The pressure grew, and when I couldn’t make the grade, and the squeezing continued, I started punching and kicking holes into the walls of our home and our furniture. At that point she shifted tactics and got me a tutor. But it was too late for me. As we were the best students in our class, the administration forced the teacher to give “gentlemen C’s” to us because, as the best students in a private school, their future was tied to ours. My own dreams of being an architect or an engineer were smashed. I could never take a math class again without freaking out. I was forced to take one semester of it in college and barely got a “c”. I can’t even balance a check book and I have to hire an accountant to do my taxes and wonder how he does it. So I understand some of this method – it doesn’t always work out. I also understand the massively high rate of suicide that exist in East Asia. Sometimes there’s no blood in the turnip.

No doubt – their system is an excellent one for a developing country. There are many many things we will eventually take from them and add to our own society to make ours better. A better understanding of communitarian values is one. But their system of conformity doesn’t produce many geniuses. Shakespeare might have ended up a doctor and Michelangelo an engineer, Jerry Seinfeld a plumber, John Lennon an electrician and Jack Lemmon a vinyl siding salesman under such a system. We are already a developed society. We know that we have to innovate to stay ahead. A system of conformity and rote memorization might get your kid into Harvard, but if he fails at Harvard, he’ll be buying rope at Home Depot to hang himself in his dorm room (seen this happen in Korea). Meanwhile he might have been the best stand up comic that never was.

In my own home town, two parents, who were teachers, had a daughter who got a perfect ACT score. They interviewed them and the mother said, “I just tell them to try lots and lots of different things… you never know what you are going to like.” Teaching students discipline is important. But play and laughter are necessary for creativity and well being and socializing. We don’t think dynastically about family life. In the end if you can do okay and feel okay about yourself, and raise decent children who do and feel the same, then that’s all anyone can ask. Hopefully everyone finds there purpose and enjoys their life. Despite an orientation of high attainment by many of the East Asians I know, including one girl I dated, and ultimately, I found her essence to be banal. All that work and intensity and it all seemed for nothing in a life that was way short of enjoyment. Because she came from inside that system, she couldn’t begin to fathom what I sensed and what ultimately repulsed me.

I understand Amy Chua. I think discipline and structure are important for children. I also think it’s a shame that she didn’t feel free enough to allow her own children to be more free to be whomever it is God had intended, and to be joyful about that. Instead they’ll be Julliard pianist or Ivy league professors or the like. I hope, either way that they will be happy and still manage to live creative lives. All this really says is that Chua, after 2500 years and 7000 miles is still trying to please Confucius, and that she is still stuck in her East Asian culture. I think she got lucky that things didn’t backfire on her children. Still, she deserves congratulations. She also has earned my pity.

Facebook Trends

I’ve noticed a tendency or predictable trends for which teacher/faculty member has Facebook and which teacher does not.

– The younger the teacher/faculty member, the increased likelihood of having a Facebook account (mid adopters)
– The closer to retirement one is, the increased likelihood of having a Facebook account (late adopters)
– The more “introverted and thinking” a faculty member is, the less the likelihood of having a Facebook account (See Science Teachers)
– The more associative faculties have increased likelihoods of possessing a Facebook account (See preacher, English Teachers, Media Teachers, Languages)
– The administrative group has an inverse-relationship for possessing a Facebook account
– The more “socially-aware” teachers set their privacy settings to near threshold (maximum privacy), the more laxed teachers have friend of friend settings.
– All teachers only accept friend requests from graduates or people who don’t go to the school anymore
– Anyone involved with reunions or sports will be more likely to have possess a Facebook account

My analysis is proven to be accurate least 80% of the time, given that some teachers have already changed their privacy settings (to which I no longer see but acknowledge their existence).

-> English
-> Languages
-> Philosophy
_> Media Arts
-> Sports
-> Socially cultivated
-> Extroverted
-> Late Adopters
-> Gamers
-> Mid-age Graduates

A Thanks to the creative minds, artists, composers alike of the YouTube Community

If there’s one thing I love about the Japanese besides their quirky game shows, funny comedic entertainment and laughable advertisements, its the fact that their YouTube community has cultivated a great sense of both innovation and pride. The number amount of remixes done, the amount of alterations as to create 8-bit version games, flash animations, real-life alter representations, mod game files, musical transformations, internet MEMEs, music animation videos, seemingly real movie trailers, breakdancing, making pop clicking sounds using just their voiceboxes, and whatnot, is innumerably more and many times more vast than any other noticeable community on YouTube when it comes to either music, games or animation. Whether that be playing six instruments at once or playing anonymously under the guise of rabbit head costumes, cosplaying as some vicious woman, or banding together, I just enjoy every bit of spite of moment of production that they do. The Japanese have mastered the art of engagement and expression, for example certain Visual Novels that I play such as F/SN often enthrall me with great and in-depth storylines, I choose every action and every action leads to a certain consequence. The Legend of the Galactic Heroes plays on the political philosophy aspect of human political systems and subtly roots out potential criticisms and benefits between political systems of both dictatorship and democracy (through the viewer’s perspective), an all encompassing space opera detailing the lives of every person, every face, every mind of every interaction, nothing is left unsolved. There are no character shields, there are no 34 gamzooka-gun machine shooters, although there is a Sci-Fi element but it plays a limited role.

They play to do their hearts out, I have a great deal of respect for such a group. Don’t get me wrong, it’s not limited to just the Japanese, but many other fellows YouTubers also.

I get a sort of sense of tendency towards introversion when it comes to such artists, although it might be just me but the amount of expression and emotions felt by people are typically introverted are typically greater by magnitudes than extroverts. If I don’t speak for all, then its mostly for me, but I am more emotional than people would have themselves believe. However, I don’t express such emotions openly and keep them private to when I’m listening to music or contemplating matters. I have an essentialist tendency to think and feel at the same time, a burning amber or feeling of joyous tides with a forced dopamine release from thinking abstractly, its an innate quality which I happen to possess.

If I could, I would drop my current life right now and just go play an instrument to my heart’s content out, given that I will possess an infinitude ability and skill for playing music, combining styles, tonalities and creating something out of nothing, or at least recombining pieces of music as to create something new. I’d play all day and night, and nothing but thoughts would appear in my mind, an intrisinic emotion that would be incredibly expressive but nevertheless thoroughly enjoyable.

Reproduction Quotient

The reproduction quotient illustrates the relative amount of total energy invested in seeking a mate or partner for life on average between both sexes. Several factors come into play when generalizing using this curve:

  • Younger people are more attractive due to the decreased expression of aging, which in turns mean that more energy expenditure will be involved in seeking a mate who is young rather than someone who is significantly older
  • Younger people have just started their lives, thus in turn means that mistakes made now are significantly less costly than those in later life (i.e. mid-life divorces)
  • Younger people are more predisposed for actively engaging in partner-seeking strategies due to developmental factors being taken into play
  • Older people have significantly more financial wealth and power (in most cases)
  • Older people in proportion to younger people are more likely to have settled down with a family or are married or are in the process of engagement and as such the energy invested for looking out on reproductive partners are reduced dramatically
  • Older individuals who are single are more likely to remain single for the rest of their life without reproducing, given the established circumstances of job security, friendships, contacts, business, etc.
  • Younger individuals are compelled, pressured to and positively reinforced by society to find suitable mates in early life
  • Typically people in their advanced ages who have already undergone divorces means that such experiences entail a behavioral effect of avoidance of investment on reproduction, given the difficulties with having children, property distribution, etc